Quick overview of i18n issues

Software Engineering: Application Internationalization Issues by Ibrahim Meru

Software origins


Diversity of presentation




Sun Microsystem's Internationalization Assessment Matrix

This is from Sun Software Product Internationalization Taxonomy. Look there at Chapter 5 for links that work

User Interfaces Program Interfaces
Character Graphical Application
Storage and
1. Translatable Product Components
1.1 Translation negotiations, defaults, and selection            
1.2 Textual objects
1.2.1 Fixed textual objects            
1.2.2 Messages            
1.2.3 Help systems and documentation            
1.3 Non-textual objects
1.3.1 Icons, images, and colors            
1.3.2 GUI objects            
1.3.3 Sounds            
1.3.4 Other            
2. Cultural formatting and processing
2.1 Culture negotiations, defaults, and selection            
2.2 Abstract objects
2.2.1 Time, date, and calendar            
2.2.2 Numeric, monetary, and metric            
2.3 Structured text
2.3.1 Ordered lists (collation)            
2.3.2 Personal names, honorifics, and titles            
2.3.3 Addresses            
2.3.4 Other formatting and layout            
2.4 Language processing
2.4.1 Lexical and grammatical            
2.4.2 Phonology and sound-to-text            
3. Text foundation and writing systems
3.1 Writing system negotiations, defaults, and selection            
3.2 Plain text representation
3.2.1 Characters (semantics and codespaces)            
3.2.2 Strings (encoding methods and transcoding)            
3.3 I/O and interchange
3.3.1 Transfer encoding (8-bit clean)            
3.3.2 Device input (keyboard and input methods)            
3.3.3 Device output (font management, rendering, and output methods)            

Shoe sizes

Tex Texin has a table of shoe sizes around the world - i18n affects lots of things!

Jan Newmarch (
Last modified: Fri Mar 4 09:55:29 EST 2005
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Copyright © Jan Newmarch, Monash University, 2007
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