Chapter 16: Transactions

Transactions are needed to coordinate changes of state across multiple clients and services. The Jini transaction model uses a simple model of transactions, with details of semantics left to the clients and services. The Jini distribution supplies a transaction manager that can be used.

16.1. Introduction

Transactions are a neccessary part of many distributed operations. Frequently two or more objects may need to synchronize changes of state so that they all occur, or none occur. This happens in situations such as control of ownership, where one party has to give up ownership at the ``same'' time as another asserts ownership. What has to be avoided is only one party performing the action, which could result in either no owners or two owners.

The theory of transactions often talks about the ``ACID'' properties:

Atomicity
All the operations of a transaction must take place, or none of them do
Consistency
The completion of a transaction must leave the participants in a ``consistent'' state, whatever that means. For example, the number of owners of a resource must remain at one
Isolation
The activities of one transaction must not affect any other transactions
Durability
The results of a transaction must be persistent

The practice of transactions is that they use the two-phase commit protocol. This requires that participants in a transaction be asked to ``vote'' on a transaction. If all agree to go ahead, then the transaction ``commits'', which is binding on all the participants. If any ``abort'' during this voting stage then it forces abortion of the transaction on all participants.

Jini has adopted the syntax of the two-phase commit method. It is up to the clients and services within a transaction to observe the ACID properties if they desire. Jini essentially supplies the mechanism of two-phase commit, and leaves the policy of meaning to the participants in a transaction.

16.2. Transactions

Restricting Jini transactions to a two-phase commit model without associating a particular semantics to this means that a transaction can be represented in a simple way, just as a long identifier. This identifier is obtained from a transaction manager, and will uniquely label the transaction to that manager. (It is not guaranteed unique between managers, though - unlike service ID's.) All participants in the transaction communicate with the transaction manager, using this identifier to label which transaction they belong to.

The participants in a transaction may disappear; the transaction manager may disappear. So transactions are managed by a lease, which will expire unless it is renewed. When a transaction manager is asked for a new transaction it returns a TransactionManager.Created object, containing the transaction identifier and lease:


public interface TransactionManager {
    public static class Created {
        public final long id;
        public final Lease lease;
    }
    ...
}
A Created object may be passed around between participants in the lease. One of them will need to look after lease renewals. All the participants will use the transaction identifier in communication with the transaction manager.

16.3. TransactionManager

A transaction manager looks after the two-phase commit protocol for all the participants in a transaction. It is responsible for creating a new transaction by its create() method. Any of the participants may force the transaction to abort by abort(), or can force it to the two-phase commit stage by calling commit().


public interface TransactionManager {

    Created create(long leaseFor) throws ...;
    void join(long id, TransactionParticipant part,
              long crashCount) throws ...;
    void commit(long id) throws ...;
    void abort(long id) throws ...;
    ...
}

When a participant joins a transaction, it registers a listener of type TransactionParticipant. If any participant calls commit(), the transaction manager starts the voting process using all of these listeners. If all of these are prepared to commit, then the manager moves all of these listeners to the commit stage. Alternatively, any of the participants may call abort(), which forces all of the listeners to abort.

16.4. TransactionParticipant

When an object becomes a participant listener in a transaction, it allows the transaction manager to call various methods


public interface TransactionParticipant ... {

    int prepare(TransactionManager mgr, long id) throws ...;
    void commit(TransactionManager mgr, long id) throws ...;
    void abort(TransactionManager mgr, long id) throws ...;
    int prepareAndCommit(TransactionManager mgr, long id) throws ...;
}
These are triggered by calls made upon the transaction manager. For example, if one client calls the transaction manager to abort, then it calls all the listeners to abort.

The ``normal'' mode of operation (that is, when nothing goes wrong with the transaction) is for a call to be made on the transaction manager to commit. It then enters the two-phase commit stage where it asks each participant listener to firstly prepare() and then to either commit() or abort().

16.5. Mahalo

Mahalo is a transaction manager supplied by Sun as part of the Jini distribution. It can be used without change. It runs as a Jini service, like reggie. If LaunchAll has been used to start reggie, then it will also have started mahalo.

Mahalo implements the service {TransactionManager.

16.6. Example

The classic use of transactions is to handle money transfers between accounts. In this there are two accounts, one of which is debited and the other credited. This is not too exciting as an example, so we shall try a more complex situation. A service may decide to charge for its use. If a client decides this cost is reasonable, it will first credit the service and then request that the service be performed. The actual accounts will be managed by an accounts service, which will need to be informed of the credits and debits that occur. A simple accounts model is that the service gets, say, a customer ID from the client, and passes its own ID and the customer ID to the accounts service which manages both accounts. Simple, prone to all sorts of e-commerce issues that we have no intention of going into, and similar to the way credit cards work!

Figure 16.1 shows the messages in a normal sequence diagram. The client makes a call getCost() to the service, and receives the cost in return. It then makes another call credit() on the service, which makes a call creditDebit() on the accounts before returning. The client then makes a final call requestService() on the service and gets back a result.

Figure 16.1: Sequence diagram for credit/debit

There are a number of problems with this that can benefit by use of a transaction model. The steps of credit() and creditDebit() should certainly be performed either both together or not at all. But in addition there is the issue of the quality of the service: suppose the client is not happy with the results from the service. It would like to reclaim its money, or better yet, not spend it in the first case! So if we include the delivery of the service in the transaction then there is the opportunity to for the client to abort the transaction before it is committed.

Figure 16.2 shows the larger set of messages in the sequence diagram for ``normal'' execution. As before, the client requests the cost from the service. After getting this, it asks the transaction manager to create a transaction and receives the transaction id. It then joins the transaction itself. When it asks the service to credit an amount, the service also joins the transaction. The service then asks the account to creditDebit() the amount, and as part of this the account also joins the transaction. The client then requests the service and gets the result. If all is fine, it then asks the transaction manager to commit(), which triggers the prepare and commit phase. The transaction manager asks each participant to prepare() and if it gets satisfactory replies from each it then asks each one to commit().

Figure 16.2: Sequence diagram for credit/debit with transactions

The points of failure in this transaction include

  1. The cost may be too high for the client. However, at this stage it has not created or joined a transaction, so this doesn't matter
  2. The client may offer too little by way of payment to the service. The service can signal this by joining the transaction and then aborting it. This will ensure that the client has to rollback the transaction. (Of course, it could instead throw a NotEnoughPayment exception - joining and aborting is used for illustrating transaction possibilities.)
  3. There may be a time delay between finding the price and asking for the service. The price may have gone up in the meantime! The service would then abort the transaction, forcing the client and the accounts to rollback
  4. After the service is performed, the client may decide that the result was not good enough, and refuse to pay. Aborting the transaction at this stage would cause the service and accounts to rollback
  5. The accounts service may abort the transaction if sufficient client funds are unavailable

16.6.1 PayableFileClassifierImpl

The service is a version of the familiar file classifier that requires a payment before it will divulge the MIME type for a file name. A bit unrealistic, perhaps, but that doesn't matter for purposes here. There will be an interface PayableFileClassifier, which extends the FileClassifier interface. We will also make it extend the Payable interface, just in case we want to charge for other services. In line with other interfaces, we shall extend this to a RemotePayableFileClassifier, and then implement this by a PayableFileClassifierImpl.

The PayableFileClassifierImpl can use the implementation of the rmi.FileClassifierImpl, so we shall make it extend this class. We also want it to be a participant in a transaction, so it must implement the TransactionParticipant interface. This leads to the inheritance diagram of figure 16.3, which isn't really as complex as it looks.

Figure 16.3: Class diagram for transaction participant

The new elements in this hierarchy are firstly the interface Payable



package common;

import java.io.Serializable;
import net.jini.core.transaction.server.TransactionManager;

/**
 * Payable.java
 */

public interface Payable extends Serializable {
    
    void credit(long amount, long accountID,
		TransactionManager mgr, 
		long transactionID)
	throws java.rmi.RemoteException;

    long getCost() throws java.rmi.RemoteException;
} // Payable





Extending this is the interface PayableFileClassifier. This will be used by the client to search for the service


package common;

/**
 * PayableFileClassifier.java
 */

public interface PayableFileClassifier extends FileClassifier, Payable {
        
} // PayableFileClassifier

with a simple extension to the remote form


package txn;

import common.PayableFileClassifier;
import java.rmi.Remote;

/**
 * RemotePayableFileClassifier.java
 */

public interface RemotePayableFileClassifier extends PayableFileClassifier, Remote {
        
} // RemotePayableFileClasssifier




The implementation of this joins the transaction when credit() is called. It is passed the transaction manager as one parameter to this call. It then finds an Accounts service from a known location (using e.g. unicast lookup), registers the money transfer, and then performs the service. There is no real state information kept by this implementation which is altered by the transaction. When asked to prepare() by the transaction manager it can just return NOTCHANGED. If there was state, the prepare() and commit() methods would have more content. The prepareAndCommit() method may be called by a transaction manager as an optimisation, and the version given in this example follows the specification given in the Jini Transaction document.

When the implementation object joins the transaction, it must pass an object that the transaction can make calls on. Since the transaction manager is running remotely this means that the object passed to it must be a proxy. This means that the implementation must prepare a proxy and pass it to the transaction manager. On the other hand, the server that contains the service object needs to have a proxy to register the service. We have seen this a few times before: the service implements ProxyAccessor which allows the server to get the proxy from the service.

The service implementation is



package txn;

import common.MIMEType;
import common.Accounts;
import rmi.FileClassifierImpl;

import net.jini.core.transaction.server.TransactionManager;
import net.jini.core.transaction.server.TransactionParticipant;
import net.jini.core.transaction.server.TransactionConstants;
import net.jini.core.transaction.UnknownTransactionException;
import net.jini.core.transaction.CannotJoinException;
import net.jini.core.transaction.CannotAbortException;
import net.jini.core.transaction.server.CrashCountException;
import net.jini.core.lookup.ServiceTemplate;
import net.jini.core.lookup.ServiceRegistrar;
import net.jini.core.discovery.LookupLocator;
import java.rmi.RemoteException;
import java.rmi.RMISecurityManager;
import net.jini.export.ProxyAccessor;

import net.jini.export.*; 
import net.jini.jeri.BasicJeriExporter;
import net.jini.jeri.BasicILFactory;
import net.jini.jeri.tcp.TcpServerEndpoint;

/**
 * PayableFileClassifierImpl.java
 */

public class PayableFileClassifierImpl extends FileClassifierImpl 
    implements RemotePayableFileClassifier, TransactionParticipant, ProxyAccessor {

    protected TransactionManager mgr = null;
    protected Accounts accts = null;
    protected long crashCount = 0; // ???
    protected long cost = 10;
    protected final long myID = 54321;
    protected  TransactionParticipant proxy;

    public PayableFileClassifierImpl() throws java.rmi.RemoteException {
	super();

	System.setSecurityManager(new RMISecurityManager());

	try {
	     Exporter exporter = new BasicJeriExporter(TcpServerEndpoint.getInstance(0),
						  new BasicILFactory());
	     proxy = (TransactionParticipant) exporter.export(this); 
	} catch (Exception e) {
	    
	}
	
    }
    
    public void credit(long amount, long accountID,
		       TransactionManager mgr, 
		       long transactionID) {
	System.out.println("crediting");

	this.mgr = mgr;

	// before findAccounts
	System.out.println("Joining txn");
	try {
	    mgr.join(transactionID, proxy, crashCount);
	} catch(UnknownTransactionException e) {
	    e.printStackTrace();
	} catch(CannotJoinException e) {
	    e.printStackTrace();
	} catch(CrashCountException e) {
	    e.printStackTrace();
	} catch(RemoteException e) {
	    e.printStackTrace();
	}
	System.out.println("Joined txn");


	findAccounts();

	if (accts == null) {
	    try {
		mgr.abort(transactionID);
	    } catch(UnknownTransactionException e) {
		e.printStackTrace();
	    } catch(CannotAbortException e) {
		e.printStackTrace();
	    } catch(RemoteException e) {
		e.printStackTrace();
	    }
	}

	try {
	    accts.creditDebit(amount, accountID, myID,
			      transactionID, mgr);
	} catch(java.rmi.RemoteException e) {
	    e.printStackTrace();
	}


    }

    public long getCost() {
	return cost;
    }

    protected void findAccounts() {
	// find a known account service
        LookupLocator lookup = null;
        ServiceRegistrar registrar = null;

        try {
            lookup = new LookupLocator("jini://localhost");
        } catch(java.net.MalformedURLException e) {
            System.err.println("Lookup failed: " + e.toString());
            System.exit(1);
        }

        try {
            registrar = lookup.getRegistrar();
        } catch (java.io.IOException e) {
            System.err.println("Registrar search failed: " + e.toString());
            System.exit(1);
        } catch (java.lang.ClassNotFoundException e) {
            System.err.println("Registrar search failed: " + e.toString());
            System.exit(1);
        }
        System.out.println("Registrar found");

	Class[] classes = new Class[] {Accounts.class};
	ServiceTemplate template = new ServiceTemplate(null, classes, 
                                                   null);
	try {
	    accts = (Accounts) registrar.lookup(template);
	} catch(java.rmi.RemoteException e) {
	    System.exit(2);
	}
    }

    public MIMEType getMIMEType(String fileName) throws RemoteException {

	if (mgr == null) {
	    // don't process the request
	    return null;
	}

	return super.getMIMEType(fileName);
    }


    public int prepare(TransactionManager mgr, long id) {
	System.out.println("Preparing...");
	return TransactionConstants.PREPARED;
    }

    public void commit(TransactionManager mgr, long id) {
	System.out.println("committing");

    }


    public void abort(TransactionManager mgr, long id) {
	System.out.println("aborting");
    }

    public int prepareAndCommit(TransactionManager mgr, long id) {
	int result = prepare(mgr, id);
	if (result == TransactionConstants.PREPARED) {
	    commit(mgr, id);
	    result = TransactionConstants.COMMITTED;
	}
	return result;
    }

    public Object getProxy() {
	return proxy;
    }
} // PayableFileClassifierImpl

The server for this implementation uses the variation that it gets the service proxy from the service:


package txn;

import txn.PayableFileClassifierImpl;

import net.jini.lookup.JoinManager;
import net.jini.core.lookup.ServiceID;
import net.jini.lookup.ServiceIDListener;
import net.jini.lease.LeaseRenewalManager;
import net.jini.discovery.LookupDiscovery;
import net.jini.discovery.LookupDiscoveryManager;
import java.rmi.RMISecurityManager;

/**
 * FileClassifierServer.java
 */

public class FileClassifierServer implements ServiceIDListener {
    
    public static void main(String argv[]) {
	new FileClassifierServer();

        // stay around long enough to receive replies
        try {
            Thread.currentThread().sleep(1000000L);
        } catch(java.lang.InterruptedException e) {
            // do nothing
        }

    }

    public FileClassifierServer() {

        System.setSecurityManager(new RMISecurityManager());

	JoinManager joinMgr = null;
	try {
	    LookupDiscoveryManager mgr = 
		new LookupDiscoveryManager(LookupDiscovery.ALL_GROUPS,
					   null /* unicast locators */,
					   null /* DiscoveryListener */);
	    joinMgr = new JoinManager(new PayableFileClassifierImpl().getProxy(),
				      null,
				      this,
				      mgr,
				      new LeaseRenewalManager());
	} catch(Exception e) {
	    e.printStackTrace();
	    System.exit(1);
	}
    }

    public void serviceIDNotify(ServiceID serviceID) {
	System.out.println("got service ID " + serviceID.toString());
    }
    
} // FileClassifierServer

16.6.2 AccountsImpl

We shall assume that all accounts in this example are managed by a single Accounts service, that knows about all accounts by a long identifier. These should be stored in permanent form, and there should be proper crash recovery mechanisms, etc. For simplicity, we shall just have a hash table of accounts, with uncommitted transactions kept in a ``pending'' list. When commitment occurs, the pending transaction takes place.

The Accounts service joins the transaction when creditDebit() is called. It is passed the transaction manager as a parameter in this call.

Figure 16.4 shows the accounts class diagram.

Figure 16.4: Class diagram for Accounts
The Accounts interface is


/**
 * Accounts.java
 */

package common;

import net.jini.core.transaction.server.TransactionManager;

public interface Accounts  {
    
    void creditDebit(long amount, long creditorID,
		     long debitorID, long transactionID,
		     TransactionManager tm)
	throws java.rmi.RemoteException;
    
} // Accounts

and the implementation is


/**
 * AccountsImpl.java
 */

package txn;

// import common.Accounts;
import net.jini.core.transaction.server.TransactionManager;
import net.jini.core.transaction.server.TransactionParticipant;
import net.jini.core.transaction.server.TransactionConstants;
import java.util.Hashtable;

import net.jini.export.ProxyAccessor;

import net.jini.export.*; 
import net.jini.jeri.BasicJeriExporter;
import net.jini.jeri.BasicILFactory;
import net.jini.jeri.tcp.TcpServerEndpoint;

// debug
import net.jini.core.lookup.ServiceTemplate;
import net.jini.core.lookup.ServiceRegistrar;
import net.jini.core.discovery.LookupLocator;
// end debug

public class AccountsImpl
    implements RemoteAccounts, TransactionParticipant, ProxyAccessor {
    
    protected long crashCount = 0; // value??
    protected Hashtable accountBalances = new Hashtable();
    protected Hashtable pendingCreditDebit = new Hashtable();
    protected  TransactionParticipant proxy;

    public AccountsImpl() throws java.rmi.RemoteException {
	try {
	     Exporter exporter = new BasicJeriExporter(TcpServerEndpoint.getInstance(0),
						  new BasicILFactory());
	     proxy = (TransactionParticipant) exporter.export(this); 
	} catch (Exception e) {
	    
	}

    }

    public void creditDebit(long amount, long creditorID,
			    long debitorID, long transactionID,
			    TransactionManager mgr) {
	
	try {
	    System.out.println("Trying to join");
	    mgr.join(transactionID, proxy, crashCount);
	} catch(net.jini.core.transaction.UnknownTransactionException e) {
	    e.printStackTrace();
	} catch(java.rmi.RemoteException e) {
	    e.printStackTrace();
	} catch(net.jini.core.transaction.server.CrashCountException e) {
	    e.printStackTrace();
	} catch(net.jini.core.transaction.CannotJoinException e) {
	    e.printStackTrace();
	}
	System.out.println("joined");
	pendingCreditDebit.put(new TransactionPair(mgr, 
						   transactionID),
			       new CreditDebit(amount, creditorID,
					       debitorID));
    }

    public int prepare(TransactionManager mgr, long id) {
	System.out.println("Preparing...");
	return TransactionConstants.PREPARED;
    }

    public void commit(TransactionManager mgr, long id) {
	System.out.println("committing");

    }


    public void abort(TransactionManager mgr, long id) {
	System.out.println("aborting");
    }

    public int prepareAndCommit(TransactionManager mgr, long id) {
	int result = prepare(mgr, id);
	if (result == TransactionConstants.PREPARED) {
	    commit(mgr, id);
	    result = TransactionConstants.COMMITTED;
	}
	return result;
    }

    class CreditDebit {
	long amount;
	long creditorID;
	long debitorID;

	CreditDebit(long a, long c, long d) {
	    amount = a;
	    creditorID = c;
	    debitorID = d;
	}
    }

    class TransactionPair {

	TransactionPair(TransactionManager mgr, long id) {

	}
    }

    public Object getProxy() {
	return proxy;
    }
} // AccountsImpl







The server for this implementation is standard:



package txn;

import net.jini.lookup.JoinManager;
import net.jini.core.lookup.ServiceID;
import net.jini.lookup.ServiceIDListener;
import net.jini.lease.LeaseRenewalManager;
import net.jini.discovery.LookupDiscovery;
import net.jini.discovery.LookupDiscoveryManager;
import java.rmi.RMISecurityManager;

/**
 * AccountsServer.java
 */

public class AccountsServer implements ServiceIDListener {
    
    public static void main(String argv[]) {
        new AccountsServer();

        // stay around long enough to receive replies
        try {
            Thread.currentThread().sleep(1000000L);
        } catch(java.lang.InterruptedException e) {
            // do nothing
        }

    }

    public AccountsServer() {

        System.setSecurityManager(new RMISecurityManager());

	JoinManager joinMgr = null;
        try {
	    LookupDiscoveryManager mgr = 
		new LookupDiscoveryManager(LookupDiscovery.ALL_GROUPS,
					   null /* unicast locators */,
					   null /* DiscoveryListener */);
            joinMgr = new JoinManager(new AccountsImpl().getProxy(),
                                      null,
                                      this,
				      mgr,
                                      new LeaseRenewalManager());
        } catch(Exception e) {
            e.printStackTrace();
            System.exit(1);
        }
    }

    public void serviceIDNotify(ServiceID serviceID) {
        System.out.println("got service ID " + serviceID.toString());
    }    
} // AccountsServer

16.6.3 Client

The final component in this is the client which starts the transaction. The simplest code for this would just use the blocking lookup() method of ClientLookupManager to find first the service and then the transaction manager. We use the longer way to show various other ways of doing things. This implementation uses a nested class which extends Thread. Because of this, it cannot extend UnicastRemoteObject, and so is not automatically exported. In order to export itself, it has to call UnicastRemoteObject.exportObject). This must be done before the call to join the transaction, which expects a remote object.



package client;

import common.PayableFileClassifier;
import common.MIMEType;

import java.rmi.RMISecurityManager;
import net.jini.discovery.LookupDiscovery;
import net.jini.discovery.DiscoveryListener;
import net.jini.discovery.DiscoveryEvent;
import net.jini.core.lookup.ServiceRegistrar;
import net.jini.core.lookup.ServiceTemplate;
import net.jini.core.transaction.server.TransactionManager;
import net.jini.core.transaction.server.TransactionConstants;
import net.jini.core.transaction.server.TransactionParticipant;

import net.jini.lease.LeaseRenewalManager;
import net.jini.core.lease.Lease;
import net.jini.lookup.entry.Name;
import net.jini.core.entry.Entry;
import java.rmi.RemoteException;
import java.rmi.server.UnicastRemoteObject;

import net.jini.core.lookup.ServiceTemplate;
import net.jini.discovery.LookupDiscoveryManager;
import net.jini.lookup.ServiceDiscoveryManager;
import net.jini.core.lookup.ServiceItem;
import net.jini.lease.LeaseRenewalManager;

import net.jini.export.*; 
import net.jini.jeri.BasicJeriExporter;
import net.jini.jeri.BasicILFactory;
import net.jini.jeri.tcp.TcpServerEndpoint;
import java.rmi.server.ExportException;

/**
 * TestTxn.java
 */

public class TestTxn implements TransactionParticipant {

    private static final long WAITFOR = 100000L;

    long crashCount = 0;

    PayableFileClassifier classifier = null;
    TransactionManager mgr = null;

    long myClientID; // my account id

    public static void main(String argv[]) {
	new TestTxn();

        // stay around long enough to receive replies
        try {
            Thread.currentThread().sleep(100000L);
        } catch(java.lang.InterruptedException e) {
            // do nothing
        }
    }

    public TestTxn() {
	System.setSecurityManager(new RMISecurityManager());


	classifier = findClassifier();

	long cost = 0;
	try {
	    cost = classifier.getCost();
	} catch(java.rmi.RemoteException e) {
	    e.printStackTrace();
	}
	if (cost > 20) {
	    System.out.println("Costs too much: " + cost);
	    classifier = null;
	}
	
	mgr = findTxnMgr();

	TransactionManager.Created tcs = null;
	
	System.out.println("Creating transaction");
	try {
	    tcs = mgr.create(Lease.FOREVER);
	} catch(java.rmi.RemoteException e) {
	    mgr = null;
	    return;
	} catch(net.jini.core.lease.LeaseDeniedException e) {
	    mgr = null;
	    return;
	}
	
	long transactionID = tcs.id;
	
	// join in ourselves
	System.out.println("Joining transaction");

	// we need to give a proxy to the transaction mgr	
	Exporter exporter = new BasicJeriExporter(TcpServerEndpoint.getInstance(0),
						  new BasicILFactory());

	// export an object of this class
	TransactionParticipant proxy = null;
	try {
	    proxy = (TransactionParticipant) exporter.export(this);
	} catch (ExportException e) {
	    e.printStackTrace();
	    System.exit(1);
	}

	try {
	    mgr.join(transactionID, proxy, crashCount);
	} catch(net.jini.core.transaction.UnknownTransactionException e) {
	    e.printStackTrace();
	} catch(java.rmi.RemoteException e) {
	    e.printStackTrace();
	} catch(net.jini.core.transaction.server.CrashCountException e) {
	    e.printStackTrace();
	} catch(net.jini.core.transaction.CannotJoinException e) {
	    e.printStackTrace();
	}
	
	new LeaseRenewalManager().renewUntil(tcs.lease,
					     Lease.FOREVER,
					     null);
	System.out.println("crediting...");
	try {
	    classifier.credit(cost, myClientID,
			      mgr, transactionID);
	} catch(Exception e) {
	    System.err.println(e.toString());
	}
	
	System.out.println("classifying...");
	MIMEType type = null;
	try {
	    type = classifier.getMIMEType("file1.txt");
	} catch(java.rmi.RemoteException e) {
	    System.err.println(e.toString());
	}
	
	// if we get a good result, commit, else abort
	if (type != null) {
	    System.out.println("Type is " + type.toString());
	    System.out.println("Calling commit");
	    
	    try { 
		System.out.println("mgr state " + mgr.getState(transactionID));
		mgr.commit(transactionID);
	    } catch(Exception e) {
		e.printStackTrace();
	    }
	    
	} else {
	    try {
		mgr.abort(transactionID);
	    } catch(java.rmi.RemoteException e) {
	    } catch(net.jini.core.transaction.CannotAbortException e) {
	    } catch( net.jini.core.transaction.UnknownTransactionException e) {
	    }
	}
    }
    
    public PayableFileClassifier findClassifier() {
	ServiceDiscoveryManager clientMgr = null;

        try {
            LookupDiscoveryManager mgr =
                new LookupDiscoveryManager(LookupDiscovery.ALL_GROUPS,
                                           null, // unicast locators
                                           null); // DiscoveryListener
	    clientMgr = new ServiceDiscoveryManager(mgr, 
						new LeaseRenewalManager());
	} catch(Exception e) {
            e.printStackTrace();
            System.exit(1);
        }
  
	Class [] classes = new Class[] {PayableFileClassifier.class};
	ServiceTemplate template = new ServiceTemplate(null, classes, 
						       null);

	ServiceItem item = null;
	// Try to find the service, blocking till timeout if necessary
	try {
	    item = clientMgr.lookup(template, 
				    null, // no filter 
				    WAITFOR); // timeout
	} catch(Exception e) {
	    e.printStackTrace();
	    System.exit(1);
	}
	if (item == null) {
	    // couldn't find a service in time
	    System.out.println("no service");
	    System.exit(1);
	}

	// Get the service
	PayableFileClassifier classifier = (PayableFileClassifier) item.service;

	if (classifier == null) {
	    System.out.println("Classifier null");
	    System.exit(1);
	}
	return classifier;
    }

    public TransactionManager findTxnMgr() {
	ServiceDiscoveryManager clientMgr = null;

        try {
            LookupDiscoveryManager mgr =
                new LookupDiscoveryManager(LookupDiscovery.ALL_GROUPS,
                                           null, // unicast locators
                                           null); // DiscoveryListener
	    clientMgr = new ServiceDiscoveryManager(mgr, 
						new LeaseRenewalManager());
	} catch(Exception e) {
            e.printStackTrace();
            System.exit(1);
        }
  
	Class [] classes = new Class[] {TransactionManager.class};
	ServiceTemplate template = new ServiceTemplate(null, classes, 
						       null);

	ServiceItem item = null;
	// Try to find the service, blocking till timeout if necessary
	try {
	    item = clientMgr.lookup(template, 
				    null, // no filter 
				    WAITFOR); // timeout
	} catch(Exception e) {
	    e.printStackTrace();
	    System.exit(1);
	}
	if (item == null) {
	    // couldn't find a service in time
	    System.out.println("no service");
	    System.exit(1);
	}

	// Get the service
	TransactionManager mgr = (TransactionManager) item.service;

	if (mgr == null) {
	    System.out.println("Mgr null");
	    System.exit(1);
	}
	return mgr;
    }


    public int prepare(TransactionManager mgr, long id) {
	System.out.println("Preparing...");
	return TransactionConstants.PREPARED;
    }
    
    public void commit(TransactionManager mgr, long id) {
	System.out.println("committing");
    }
    
    
    public void abort(TransactionManager mgr, long id) {
	System.out.println("aborting");
	
    }
    
    public int prepareAndCommit(TransactionManager mgr, long id) {
	int result = prepare(mgr, id);
	if (result == TransactionConstants.PREPARED) {
	    commit(mgr, id);
	    result = TransactionConstants.COMMITTED;
	}
	return result;
    }
} // TestTxn


16.7. Summary

Transactions are needed to coordinate changes of state across multiple clients and services. The Jini transaction model uses a simple model of transactions, with details of semantics left to the clients and services. The Jini distribution supplies a transaction manager that can be used.

16.8. Copyright

If you found this chapter of value, the full book "Foundations of Jini 2 Programming" is available from APress or Amazon .

This file is Copyright (©) 1999, 2000, 2001, 2003, 2004, 2005 by Jan Newmarch (http://jan.netcomp.monash.edu.au) [email protected].

Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons License, the replacement for the earlier Open Content License.